Heterotrimeric G protein mediated signalling in plants
The heterotrimeric G protein consists of an α, β, and γ subunit and was initially identified and well-studied in animal systems. In animals, they perceive external signals via transmembrane receptors and transfer the signals leading to various cellular activities. Recent studies have identified G proteins in plants that has numerous roles in basic plant functioning. In plants, G protein signalling known to be involved in the regulation of cell division and development, morphological development, stomatal control, light perception abiotic stress response to phytohormones, nitrogen metabolism, ionchannel, disease responses and sugar sensing. This review highlights the basic differences in plant and animal G proteins. Further, the review focuses on the plant G protein signalling process in regulation of nitrogen, immune responses and phytohormones. It also gives an insight into the role of G protein in root nodulation, lateral root formation and sugar sensing.